Drilling Fluid Polymers and Demulsifiers for Produced Water and Wastewater

Tramfloc polymers are used to treat both produced water and wastewater. Many factors influence produced water quality such as bacteria, iron sulfide which cause dark water and suspended solids contaminants. Oil may attach itself to the surfaces of suspended solids, TSS, in the formation which causes a higher oil content than desirable. If you can increase the quality of the produced water, then you can raise your bottom line profit. Tramfloc manufactures, coagulants, demulsifiers, flocculants, water clarifiers, viscosifiers, friction reducers, shale inhibitors, and thinners in granular, solution, emulsion and dispersion physical forms.

Some of the well application areas are oil, gas, injection, pumping, flowing, disposal; water disposal and reuse, formation squeeze, oil lift, pipelines, truck treating, side-stream flushing, flow lines and casing batches.

Some of the benefits which can be realized by the Tramfloc treatment programs are: reduced suspended solids, decreased oil content, increased protection against equipment outages, increased oil recovery, compliance with regulatory discharge laws, ability to inject higher quality produced water. The following is a summary of some of our drilling fluid categories.

Here is a summary of some of the polymers we offer for these fluid applications.

1) Viscosity Builder/Viscosifier/Shale Stabilizer, anionic

Products are designed to build viscosity and may be used in non-dispersed fresh water, sea water, NaCl and KCl systems. For clear water drilling products may be used to flocculate drill solids.

Tramfloc® 148, emulsion
Tramfloc® 129, powder
Tramfloc® 129 QW, powder, quick wetting

2) Mud Thinner, anionic, sulfonated

Polyacrylates

Products are designed to reduce the viscosity of a drilling fluid and/or create dispersed or de-flocculated mud systems.

Tramfloc® 1015
Tramfloc® 1016, for HP/HT systems, low MW, to 6500 F
Tramfloc® 1017, for HP/HT systems, medium MW
Tramfloc® 1018, powder form of Tramfloc® 1015

3) Drag Reducer, anionic

Tramfloc® 1019, for fresh water and light brines
Tramfloc® 1020, for heavy brine or fresh water
Tramfloc® 1021, freeze protected Tramfloc® 1020
Tramfloc® 1022, multi-purpose use, has ATBS monomer

4) Drag Reducer, cationic

Tramfloc® 300, for fresh water
Tramfloc® 310, for low pH water

5) Scale Inhibitor, anionic

Used where high calcium concentrations are present; will control scale build-up from calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and barium sulfate.
Tramfloc® 1023
Tramfloc® 1028
Tramfloc® 1029
Tramfloc® 1030

6) Flocculants/Coagulants, for mud dewatering and oily water clarification

Tramfloc® 308 cationic emulsion, or Tramfloc® 408 cationic powder for oily water
Tramfloc® 148 anionic emulsion or Tramfloc® 1019 or Tramfloc® 1020
Tramfloc® 168 anionic powder
Tramfloc® 111 anionic emulsion
Tramfloc® 864 or Tramfloc® 864A epi/amine, with anionic flocculant
Tramfloc® 724 or Tramfloc® 725 polydadmac

7) Filtration Control/Bentonite Extender

Tramfloc® 1024, powder
Tramfloc® 1025, powder
Tramfloc® 1026, liquid solution

Here are detailed descriptions of some of the product groups.

Viscosifiers

Essential additives which establish the right carrying capacity to move cuttings and other debris away from the drill bit, help maintain the correct pressure in the borehole, and lower filtration. In addition, while mud circulation is stopped, e.g., to add drill-string, a weak gel strength is produced which maintains cuttings in suspension, avoiding blockage at the drill-bit.

We offer a range of viscosifiers varying molecular weight, ionicity, and product form to address different requirements. Polyacrylamide based polymers are especially effective in freshwater environments.

Building suitable viscosity in oil based inverted muds can be especially challenging as a primary viscosifier such as amine treated clay takes several circulations to build maximum viscosity and yield. This limits the ability to add weighting material and initial hole cleaning.

Given a correct formulation, polymeric viscosifiers such as Tramfloc® 1019 and 1020 can yield quickly and provide immediate carrying capacity which speeds up operations and reduces cost.

Tramfloc® 129, our multifunctional product, is also a viscosifier for water-based muds. It has a very good performance reputation and comes in two product forms: liquid and powder.

Tramfloc® 168 allows you to achieve high viscosity in water-based muds by combining our advanced powder with fresh water. Benefits include:
One of the highest viscosities within the viscosifier range
Good for fresh water use
Particularly useful in shallow drilling / trenching or geo-construction

Tramfloc® 147, apart from being quick yielding, provides the following additional benefits for oil-based mud application:
Supplied as an aqueous emulsion, it offers easy application due to liquid form (simply pours into mud)
Disperses easily into mud
Allows primary viscosifier (amine treated clay) to build further viscosity
Freeze-thaw stable

Shale Inhibitors

When encountering shale during drilling operations, water in the drilling fluid may interact with the clay materials within the formation, causing the shale to swell. This can lead to instability in the wellbore, and dispersion of shale into the drilling fluid (sloughing), eventually leading to hole washout.

Depending on specific needs, Tramfloc has developed a range of shale inhibitors with differing degrees of molecular weight, ionicity, and product forms to satisfy to different conditions and fluid systems. The products range from hydration inhibitors to multifunctional polymers which give additional viscosity and carrying capacity.

Alternatively where such viscosity is not desired i.e., in high solids non-dispersed muds or in mud pre-mix concentrates, this effect is minimized but shale inhibition is maintained. This is achieved by controlling polymer molecular weight during the (bead) manufacturing process.

Our products inhibit the shale from hydrating, lower the probability of bit balling, and can provide improved lubricity and friction reduction.

Tramfloc® 1019 is a multi-functional product, acting not only as a shale inhibitor, but also as a viscosifier, friction reducer and flocculant. It has a very good performance reputation and comes in two product forms: liquid dispersion and superior bead.

Additional benefits of Tramfloc® 1019:
Excellent stability
Easily dissolved and can be mixed on the fly

Benefits of Tramfloc® 1018 – powder:
Effective powder form brings all the handling benefits of beads: easy mixing, less dust, etc.
Provides very good solubility in cold conditions

Tramfloc® 1022 is a technically advanced shale inhibitor that provides excellent dispersibility. Some additional advantages include:
Creates minimum viscosity but provides all benefits of shale inhibition associated with PHPA’s
Avoids excess viscosity when mixing into non-dispersed mud, due to its carefully controlled, low molecular weight
Saves energy costs and unnecessary delays associated with conditioning the mud.
Can be used in mud concentrates – the optimized viscosity profile enables shipping of up to half the volume of mud, which can then be diluted on-site

Tramfloc® 170
a technically advanced shale inhibitor
provides excellent dispersibility
the particles of this powder wet separately and dissolution can proceed rapidly without the formation of lumps or fish eyes

Tramfloc® 128
a multifunctional synthetic polymer 
developed for use in fresh, KCI and salt water-based drilling fluids, 
provides viscosity and shale inhibition.
ts innovations across all application segments for the oil and gas industry

Thinners

In water-based muds, as incorporation of drilled solids progressively influences the mud rheology, it may be of significant benefit to reduce the viscosity of your drilling fluid using a thinning agent (deflocculant). These highly effective products avoid the need for mud dilution which also requires replenishment of mud chemicals and increases mud volume and disposal costs. In addition, once present, thinners will maintain a dispersed drilling fluid rheology, thus protecting against mud gelling or flocculation due to contamination and /or high temperature. This in turn will help achieve a thin filter-cake at the wellbore and will avoid excess fluid loss and associated issues.
We provide a range of thinners which bring additional advantages:
Quick make-up and thinning action
Temperature stability
Non-foaming
Can be used over a wide pH range
Ca / Mg tolerant
Low order of toxicity or non-toxic

Tramfloc® 1015 is our unique thinner and deflocculant that provides the cleanest and most effective mud viscosity control. Some additional benefits with this product:
Accepted as the cleanest and most effective route to mud viscosity control
Provides a very high divalent metal ion resistance particularly at elevated temperatures
Functions over a wide pH range
Contributes to fluid loss control
Reduces mud viscosity without mud dilution
Thermal stability to 490ºF – Prevents mud gelling at high temperature
A powder that provides very good solubility, also offered in liquid form

Tramfloc® 1017is a superior deflocculant for clay/water based muds. Here are some of its benefits:
Superior deflocculation of bentonite at temperatures up to 500 °F
Adsorbs onto the surface of clay platelets, preventing the flocculation of bentonite
Reconditions gelled muds by deflocculating bentonite. This makes the fluid pumpable again, with low static shear strength
Also supports fluid loss additives – combine with Tramdrill® for a systems approach
Decreases API and HTHP filtrates of drilling fluids.
Electrolyte tolerance
Stable and low viscosity in high solids muds
Low treatment and replacement levels

Tramfloc® 148
Liquid dispersing agent
for use in aqueous systems of sparingly soluble solids that are inorganic in nature.
Demulsifiers to Break Reverse Emulsions

Tramfloc® 700 and 800 Series of reverse emulsion breakers can help improve operating efficiency in the oil-water separation process while increasing yield and deceasing reagent costs. When emulsions are formed, they can increase viscosity which increases friction losses.
Emulsion formation increases costs such as waste disposal, fuel and reprocessing.

Here are some of the benefits from a Tramfloc emulsion breaking program. Production rates increases in downhole applications and well as reduced pump wear; improved tankage/vessel efficiency due to distinct oil-water interface; reduced temperature separation which lowers fuel costs; reduced viscosity and friction losses; reduced waste/slop oil reprocessing expenses.

Product Description

This Tramfloc® series of many specific coagulant formulations consists of 50% polyamine products with NSF® standard 60 approval. Tramfloc® coagulants have proven efficacy in resolving oil in water and inverse emulsions. This series is also useful in separating fines in potable water, lime softening, dye and ink production, food processing and bio-pharma streams.

Uses

Tramfloc® coagulants are highly effective in a variety of oil/water/solids separation processes in industrial, refining, chemical, mining and utility applications. Tramfloc® coagulants help produce high clarity water, a dense rag layer and a clean, high quality oil phase in demulsification applications in oil recycling and recovery operations. For optimum results, the coagulated material may require flocculation by another Tramfloc® formulation. This series of formulations is also used to reduce the application of inorganic coagulants such as iron and aluminum salts, lime and clays.

Feeding

Tramfloc® coagulants are usually slug fed neat to a point of good mixing in the application.

Packaging

Tramfloc® coagulants are available in 500# net weight drums, tote bins, and in bulk.

Safety and Health

Spills of coagulants are extremely slippery. Precautions should be taken to prevent them from entering lakes or streams. Tramfloc® Cleaner 348 can be used to remove residue from equipment and floors. Coagulants can be flushed with copious amounts of water and disposed of according to local regulations or treated with an absorbent material, then collected for subsequent legal disposal. Precaution should be taken to prevent inhalation, ingestion or contact with skin or eyes. Observing basic industrial hygiene precautions should prevent any health or safety hazards.