Super Absorbent Polymers for Water Retention and Erosion Control

Among the resources increasingly involved in man-made activities, water is certainly one of the most precious. Nearly three quarters of the water used all over the world are being consumer for agricultural needs in each and every country. Hence, the urgent necessity to optimize its use.

Tramfloc 1000 Series are hydrogels which absorb and retain large quantities of water and nutrients when dipped into the soil or any other growing media. They optimize plant growth with minimal losses of water and nutrients through leaching and evaporation. Water and nutrients are stored in the root zone for an optimal uptake by the plant.

Tramfloc 1000 Series
· Increase water reserves of soils for several years
· Allow land-cultivation under extreme soil and climate conditions
· Provide plants with regular moisture supply
· Develop better plant growth in rain-sparse regions
· Improve soil ventilation in compact soils
· Reduce irrigation timing and water quantities
· Decrease by at least a third the nutrient leaching into the ground water
· Protect environment against drought, erosion, desertification and water-pollution
  super absorbent polymer super absorbent polymer
Tramfloc 1000 Series for agriculture, horticulture, forestry, nurseries, landscaping, private and public gardens, ornamentals…

Intensive irrigation is the source of sever damage to soils such as erosion, crust-formation, soil-hardening and poor water infiltration.

Tramfloc 1000 Series covers a wide range of water-soluble polymers available either in emulsion, granulated powder or solid tablets. They can fit any irrigation system, whether water-channeling or water-sprinkling. Soil-porosity is improved as the suspended fine particles flocculate at the surface and this considerably reduce soil-erosion due to one or the other system. Irrigation waters are thus used in far more efficient ways.

Tramfloc 1000 Series
· Reduce soil loss by up to 95%
· Prevent erosion, crust-formation and soil-hardening of irrigated soils
· Improve water infiltration into soils up to 35%
· Reduce mechanization costs
· Are cost effective: only 1 to 3 kg per irrigated hectare
· Protect environment due to the reduction of pesticide and nutrient runoff
 super absorbent polymer
Tramfloc 1000 Series is the optimum approach for furrow and sprinkling irrigation…

Tramfloc 1000 Series are also soil stabilizers. Sprayed in diluted quantities all over the area to be treated, they form a synthetic network that improve both soil cohesion and water infiltration. Thus the better hydrophilic properties of the soil promote soil stabilization making seed-germination and root development a lot easier. The newly established vegetation protects the soil durably against erosion.

Tramfloc 1000 Series
· Are easy to use as they can be spread together with seeds and fertilizers through hydroseeding and equipment
· Improve soil cohesion and prevent erosion damage
· Allow plant growth even on high-grade slopes
· Reduce ploughing costs
· Considerably abate the costs of land reclamation
· Help fight against desertification and soil erosion

super absorbent polymer

super absorbent polymer
Tramfloc 1000 Series for lanscaping, road embankment and mountain hydroseeding…

super absorbent polymer

super absorbent polymer
Tramfloc 1000 Series- fine and course powders.

Human activities require more and more resources- among them water is certainly the most precious. Modern agriculture consumes almost two thirds of the waters pumped nationwide. For this reason, more and more people are seeking ways to conserve it.

Tramfloc 1000 Series is a water retainer that, when incorporated into a soil or a substrate absorbs and retains large quantities of water and nutrients. Unlike most products that become hydrated, Tramfloc 1000 Series has the property of easily releasing the absorbed water and nutrients, thereby allowing the plant to have water and nutrients available at will as a function of the absorption- release cycle.

Tramfloc 1000 Series
· Increases the Water Holding Capacity of soils for several years. Irrigation frequency may be reduced by 50%.
· Limits losses of water and nutrient due to leaching.
· Reduces evaporation from the soil.
· Improves the physical properties of compact soils through good aeration.
· Enhances plant growth. Water and nutrients are continuously available in the root zone for optimal absorption by plants.
· Protects the environment against drought and groundwater pollution.

Composition:
Tramfloc 1000 Series is a range of superabsorbent anionic polyacrylamide polymers. They are crosslinked copolymers of acrylamide and potassium acrylate that are water insoluble.
super absorbent polymer
How It Works:
The polymer consists of a set of polymeric chains that are parallel to each other and regularly linked to each other by cross-linking agents, thus forming a network. When water comes into contact with one of these chains, it is drawn into the molecule by osmosis. Water rapidly migrates into the interior of the polymer network where it is stored. As the soil dries out, the polymer releases up to 95% of the absorbed water into the soil. The quantity of cross-linking agent enables modification of the polymer network.

The more the polymer is crosslinked, the tighter the network. Thus absorption capacity decreases but the polymer remains more stable over time.
super absorbent polymer

PERFORMANCES AND ADVANTAGES
Tramfloc 1000 Series is offered in different particle sizes of which the absorption and release capacities vary depending on the conditions in the soil enviornment.
super absorbent polymer  super absorbent polymer super absorbent polymer

ARBORICULTURE
Tramfloc 1000 Series is effective in the planting of trees, bushes, and samplings. It makesit possible to reduce the mortality rate due to transplanting shock and to enhance root development and therefore bring about more rapid growth and production.
1. Dig a hole about 3 times the volume of the root system.
2. Mix 1 to 2 kg of Tramfloc 1000 Series per m3 into the earth fill.
3. The polymer must be evenly mixed into the excavated soil. A small amount of untreated soil must be set aside.
4. Place the root ball of the plant at the bottom of the hole and fill in the hole with the treated soil. Make sure that the product is distributed evenly around the roots. Then cover the surface with 5 cm of untreated soil to prevent degradation of the polymer by ultraviolet rays and stagnation of water on the surface.
5. Be especially careful not to put unmixed dry product at the bottom of the hole. After hydration, the product would destabilize the plant.

Recommended product: Tramfloc 1003 in coarse soils, Tramfloc 1004 in fine soils.
Dosage: 1 to 2 kg/m3 of soil.

LAWNS AND SOD
Water retainers are very easily used throughout the growth cycle of lawns and sod. They ensure good germination, faster root development, and regular and even growth of lawns. The rooting of sod is also faster. They are widely used in landscaping for golf courses and grass in parks and gardens.
1. Work, break up, and level the soil to be planted with grass.
2. Spread Tramfloc 1000 Series on the surface of the soil. The polymer may be broadcast or applied with a fertilizes spreader for a more even distribution.
3. Work Tramfloc 1000 Series into the soil to a maximum depth f 10cm. This can be done by hand with a spade or mechanically with a disk plow or a rototiller.
4. Seed the lawn or lay the soil. Roll the soil to compact it.
5. Use fertilizers if needed.

Recommended product: Tramfloc 1000 Series 1003
Dosage: 20 to 50 g/m3

HYDROSEEDING
Tramfloc 1000 Series is commonly used in hydroseeding to stablize newly graded soils. Mized with or without cellulose mulch, it makes it possible to maintain a minimum of surface water, which permits rapid sprouting of seedlings even in dry areas. The vegetation cover develops uniformly and rapidly over the whole treated surface. There are no dry spots without grass.

The other advantage of Tramfloc 1000 Series is that it prevents cellulose mulch from becoming hardpan during a dry spell. The mulch remains aerated and allows the seeds to sprout quickly. Tramfloc 1000 Series also makes it possible to reduce the amount of mulch.

Tramfloc 1000 Series must be added last to the hydroseeder tank, ater theother components: seeds, fertilizers, mulch, etc. It must be then stirred at least 15 minutes before spreading.
super absorbent polymer

Amounts are to be adjusted based on soil type, slope of the terrain, plant needs, weather conditions, etc.

Recommended product: Tramfloc 1003 or 1005, Tramfloc 1000 Series

BARE ROOT DIPPING
Tramfloc 1000 Series can be used for root dipping in order to prevent the desiccation of the roots of seedlings during transplanting over a long distance. The dressing is prepared as follows:
1. Mix 1 kg of Tramfloc 1000 Series in 150-200 liters of water. Amounts vary depending on the salinity of the water.
2. Slowly pour in the product while stirring the water to obtain a dressing without dumping particles.
3. Let the dressing stand for 15 minutes, the time needed for TRAMSORB to reach its maximum absorption. It is important to obtain a dressing that will adhere completely to the roots. The longer the maturation, the thicker the dressing will be and the better it will adhere to the roots.
4. A water-soluble nematocide and/or fungicide may also be added to the preparation to protect plants against nematode and fungal attacks.

Recommended product: Tramfloc 1006
Dosage: 1 kg in 150 to 200 liters of water

SOIL MIXES
Mixed into a substrate, Tramfloc 1000 Series provides a reduction in water stress. It ensures that cutting and transplants take root better and that seedlings grow faster. Irrigation frequencies are spread out. It is an ideal solution in substrates for containers, hanging plants, and houseplants.

Water frequencies are commonly reduced by 30% to 50%, which likewise reduces labor costs and the amount of water used.
1. Evenly mix Tramfloc 1000 Series into the substrate. The amount must be adapted to each type of substrate based on water requirements and characteristics of the plants and cultivation and weather conditions. As a general rule, the more permeable the substrate, the greater the need for Tramfloc 1000 Series.
2. In permeable substrates made of bark, wood fiber or coconut-residue, the recommened amount is 2-3 kg/m3

Recommended product: Tramfloc 1003
Dosage: 1 to 3 kg/m3
super absorbent polymer

MIXING WITH FERTILIZERS
To reduce leaching of nutrients into the soil, Tramfloc 1000 Series may be mixed into fertilizer preparations. The behavior of plants fertilized with this mixture makes it possible to maintain or even increase yield while at the same time protecting the enviornment from leaching. Manufactures’ test results also show better root development of the plants. Savings on the order of 15% to 30% are observed in the amount of fertilizers. The polymer is added dry when the fertilizers are manufactured.

Recommended product: Tramfloc 1003
Dosage: 1% to 5% by weight

ANIMAL LITTER
TRAMSORB products can also be used as as additive in drying feed litters used in breeding farms to replace the old generation of phosphate based-litters. This new generation of animal drying has many benefits:
1. A better comfort for the animals due to a dryer bedding enviornment.
2. A reduction of odors.
3. An improvement of the fertilizing value of manure due to a better fixation of ammonia.
4. A better respect of the enviornment as it is a phosphate-free product.

FLORAL DECORATION
Tramfloc 1000 Series is commonly used for coloring the water in glass containers. Tramfloc 1000 Series in granules is allowed to expand in colored solutions. The hydrogel is placed in glass containers in which cut flowers may be replaced.

Recommended product: Tramfloc 1003 OR 1013
Dosage: 1 kg in 150 liters of water.

TRANSPORTING CUT FLOWERS
Tramfloc 1000 Series in the form of hydrogel may be placed in sealed plasic puches. Once frozen, the pouches are often used in the transport of heat-sensitive plant products such as cut flowers. The hydrogel has excellent resistance to heat shock and does not leak after thawing.

Recommended product: Tramfloc 1004 or 1003

AGRICULTURE
TRAMSORB has also shown its effectiveness in large-scale farming, especially at the time of germination and development of the root network due to good aeration of the soil. The storage of rainwater or irrigation water by Tramfloc 1000 Series delays the wilting point and thus makes it possible for certain plants to begin to be well established while waiting for the water regime to become adequate. Tramfloc 1000 Series ensures a good population and an even growth of plants even in very permeable soils.

For example, in the farming of rain-fed sugar cane, significan increase in yield of approx. 25% are observed.
1. When replanting a field, put Tramfloc 1000 Series in the furrows where the cane shoots are placed.
2. TRAMSORB may be applied at the same time as a fertilizer.
3. Cover the shoots with soil by earthing up.

Recommended product: Tramfloc 1003 in coarse soils, Tramfloc 1004 in fine soils
Dosage: 10-15 kg/ha

TEST RESULTS
Tramfloc 1000 Series improves horticultural crop yields due to better aeration of the substrate. The date of the first harvest is earlier, which allows for faster crop rotation.
super absorbent polymer

Tramfloc 1000 Series makes it possible to improve the water retention of substrates. Irrigation frequencies are spread out therby reducing both water and labor costs.
super absorbent polymer

In rain-fed sugar cane farming, Tramfloc 1000 Series improves transplanting and growth rates of cane shoots during the dry season and has allowed for a significant increase in yields. The sugar yield of plots treated with 15 kg/ha increased by 25% over the control plots. Tramfloc 1000 Series was applied locally in the crop furrow when the shoots were replanted.
super absorbent polymer

In arboriculture, Tramfloc 1000 Series reduces the summer mortality rate of young trees due to transplanting shock by 40% with respect to the control group.
super absorbent polymer

INFORMATION ON PRODUCT USE
Application of the dry or hydrated product:
· After hydration of the dry product, it becomes a transparent gel that is greatly expanded.
· When the product is mixed dry into a substrate, it is recommended that an empty space of a minimum of 15% be left in containers. During hydration, the substrate could overflow its container.
· Dry product must not be placed under plugs. the plant could be destabilized after TRAMSORB hydration/
· It is preferable to mix the dry product in an irrigated soil of substrate.
· On the other hand, hydrating the product in a non-irrigated soil is recommended so that it becomes active immediately.

Choice of particle size:
This is an important factor to consider based on the soil type.
· In general, the finer the particle size of the polymer, the greater its capacity and speed of absoprtion and vice-versa.
· When applying Tramfloc 1000 Series to very porous soils (e.g. sand, compost) use a small particle size for more rapid water absorption.
· In heavy soils (for example, clay), granules are preferable. They improve the porosity of the soil due to their great expansion capacity.
·In the preparation of dressings, use a very fine product to achieve protection of the root hairs.

Very fine products:
· Because of their volatility, wearing a dust mask is recommended.
· If the product is hydrated before use, slowly pour the product into water. Stirring lightly will prevent the fine particles from clumping.

Additional information:
· The higher the water temperature, the faster the absorption of water by Tramfloc 1000 Series.
· All the products in the Tramfloc 1000 Series line have a high absoprtion capacity. If the product is spilled, be sure not to rinse it with water. The ground will become extremely slippery. Shovel or vacuum it up.
· To clean equipment, blow off powder traces with compressed air.
· Avoid contact with eyes and skin (use of gloves and goggles is recommended.)

ENVIORNMENT
Enviornmental consequences:

Biodegradation- The polymer is sensitive to the action of ultraviolet rays that, by breaking bonds, degrade the polymer into oligomers (molecules of much smaller size). It thus becomes much more sensitive to the aerobic and anaerobic processess of microbiological degradation. Tramfloc 1000 Series therefore degrade naturally in soils (up to 10% to 15% per year) in CO2, H2O and nitrogen compounds.

Bioaccumulation- The polymer is much too voluminou to be absorbed into the tissues and calls of plants. Its potential to boaccumulate is therefore nil. (SCPA study n 97-78)

Toxicity- Tramfloc 1000 Series products demonstrate no systemic toxicity (oral LD50/rats > 5000 mg/kg).

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